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Introducton to Web Design
Special Characters  

  • If you noticed, in many of the web pages used in this tutorial, we write out tags such as <B>.

  • You may ask yourself, how does the web browser know that I want to display the bold tag itself and not make the text next to it bold?

  • Well, the answer is that the web browser does not know. I have to tell it.

  • Specifically, I use the &#60; to represent the < sign and &#62; sign to represent > sign.

  • Consider the following code:

&#60;B&&#62;This text is not going to be bold, but is
going to display as the tag itself.&&#60;B&&#62;

<P>

<B>This text is bold however</B>

  • When displayed on the web, it would look like this:

    <B>This text is not going to be bold, but is going to display as the tag itself.</B>

    This text is bold however

    Some of the special characters have a numeric value as well as a character value. For example, the less than sign can be written either at &lt; or &#60;

  • There are many such special characters that must be defined with such syntax because there is no way for the web browser to recognize them otherwise.

  • The following table goes over the list of special characters.
Special Character HTML-Escape Equivalent
Unused &#00; - &#08;
Horizontal Tab &#09;
Line Feed &#10;
Unused &#11; - &#31;
Space &#32;
! &#33;
" &#34;
# &#35;
$ &#36;
% &#37;
& &#38;
' &#39;
( &#40;
) &#41;
* &#42;
+ &#43;
, &#44;
- &#45;
. &#46;
/ &#47;
0-9 &#48; - &#57;
: &#58;
; &#59;
< &#60;
= &#61;
> &#62;
? &#63;
@ &#64;
A - Z &#65; - &#90;
[ &#91;
\ &#92;
] &#93;
^ &#94;
_ &#95;
` &#96;
a - z &#97; - &#122;
{ &#123;
| &#124;
} &#125;
~ &#126;
Unused &#127; - &#160;
¡ &#161;
¢ &#162;
£ &#163;
¤ &#164;
¥ &#165;
¦ &#166;
§ &#167;
¨ &#168;
© &#169;
ª &#170;
« &#171;
¬ &#172;
­ &#173;
® &#174;
¯ &#175;
° &#176;
± &#177;
² &#178;
³ &#179;
´ &#180;
µ &#181;
&#182;
· &#183;
¸ &#184;
¹ &#185;
º &#186;
» &#187;
¼ &#188;
½ &#189;
¾ &#190;
¿ &#191;
À &#192;
Á &#193;
 &#194;
à &#195;
Ä &#196;
Å &#197;
Æ &#198;
Ç &#199;
È &#200;
É &#201;
Ê &#202;
Ë &#203;
Ì &#204;
Í &#205;
Î &#206;
Ï &#207;
Ð &#208;
Ñ &#209;
Ò &#210;
Ó &#211;
Ô &#212;
Õ &#213;
Ö &#214;
× &#215;
Ø &#216;
Ù &#217;
Ú &#218;
Û &#219;
Ü &#220;
Ý &#221;
Þ &#222;
ß &#223;
à &#224;
á &#225;
â &#226;
ã &#227;
ä &#228;
å &#229;
æ &#230;
ç &#231;
è &#232;
é &#233;
ê &#234;
ë &#235;
ì &#236;
í &#237;
î &#238;
ï &#239;
ð &#240;
ñ &#241;
ò &#242;
ó &#243;
ô &#244;
õ &#245;
ö &#246;
÷ &#247;
ø &#248;
ù &#249;
ú &#250;
û &#251;
ü &#252;
ý &#253;
þ &#254;
ÿ &#255;

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