To get a directory listing, you will use the "ls" utility which follows the rules described in the table below:
|ls options filelist.||ls -l /home/selena/public_html/*.html||Lists the specified contents of the specified directory according to the options setting.|
The options for the "ls" command are described in the table below:
|-A||Lists "ALL" files (including hidden ones) but not the current or parent directories ("." or "..").|
|-a||Lists "ALL" files including hidden ones and both current and parent directories ("." and "..").|
|-C||Lists files in columns sorted from top to bottom, left to right.|
|-d||lists directory names only. This is very useful since "ls directory_name" will give you the listing of that directory rather than showing you if the named directory is actually in the current.|
|-F||Adds a "/" for directories and a "*" for executables.|
|-i||Lists the inode number.|
|-l||Provides a "long" listing with details about such things as file permission, age, date created, date of last modification, etc.|
|-r||Reverses the sort order.|
|-R||Lists sub-directories recursively.|
|-x||Lists files in columns sorted from left to right then top to bottom.|
Here are some examples of using the "ls" command. Note that you can use multiple options at one time by simply adding them to the option list.
Notice in the example above, the ls command turned up quite a different file list than the ls -a even though they were listing the same directory. This is because the ls -a command lists hidden files as well as normal files.
A Hidden File is a file whose name begins with a period. These files are usually administrative files and are often distracting when you are doing your daily work. Thus UNIX hides them unless you specifically ask to see them with the -a option
Okay, here are some more examples of the ls utility
Now you practice using the "ls" utility in some of the directories you moved to in the last section.
Focus on the "-l" Option
The image below shows a typical "-l" listing. In the image you will see that there are several fields listed for each file.
|File Type||Is this a regular file or a directory. "-" denotes a regular file, "d" denotes a directory, "c" denotes a character special file, a "b" specifies a block special file, a "l" represents a symbolic link, and a "p" specified a named pipe.|
|Permissions||User, Group and World privileges. We will discuss this in much greater detail in just a moment|
|Link Count||The number of names for this file or directory|
|Owner||We will discuss this later|
|Group||We will discuss this later|
|Size||The size of the file in bytes|
|Modification Date||The last time the file was modified|
|File name||The name of the UNIX Version. No just kidding. The file's name|
The ls -l option also includes several options that affect the listing. These options are shown below:
|-c||Sorts by the last time the inode was changed with the -t option|
|-t||Sorts listing by modification time.|
|-u||Sorts by the last time accessed.|