$substring = substr([string you want to extract from], [beginning point of extraction], [length of the extracted value]);
For instance, to assign "Sol" to the scalar variable $last_name you would use the following code:
$name = "Selena Sol"; $last_name = substr ($name, 7, 3);
The substr function takes the scalar variable $name, and extracts three characters beginning with the seventh.
WARNING: as in array indexing, the substr function counts from zero, not from one. Thus, in the string "Gunther", the letter "t" is actually referenced as "3" not "4". Also note that the final number (length of extracted value) is not necessary when you want to grab everything "after" the beginning character. Thus, the following code will do just what the previous did since we are extracting the entire end of the variable $name:
$last_name = substr ($name, 7);
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