introduction to web programming Using logical operators (&& and ||) Control statements can also be modified with a variety of logical operators that extend the breadth of the control statement truth test using the following syntax:

    [control statement] (([first condition]) [logical operator]
                         ([second condition]))
           {
           [action to be performed]
           }

For example, the "&&" operator can be translated to "and". In usage, it takes the format used in the following example:

    if (($first_name eq "Selena") &&
        ($last_name eq "Sol"))
           {
           print "Hello Selena Sol";
           }

Translating the logic goes something like this: if the first name is Selena AND the last name is Sol, then print "Hello Selena Sol". Thus, if $first_name was equal to "Selena" but $last_name was equal to "Flintstone", the control statement would test as false and the statement block would not be executed.

Notice that we use parentheses to denote conditions. Perl evaluates each expression inside the parentheses independently and then evaluates the results for the entire group of conditions. If either returns false, the entire test returns false. Parentheses are used to determine precedence. With more complex comparisons, in which there are multiple logical operators, the parentheses help to determine the order of evaluation.

  • Similarly, you may wish to test using the double pipe (||) operator. This operator is used to denote an "or". Thus, the following code would execute the statement block if $first_name was Selena OR Gunther.

        if (($first_name eq "Selena") ||
           ($first_name eq "Gunther"))
               {
               print "Hello humble CGI book author!";
               }
    

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